Thornton, William

Designed US Capitol, 1st Architect of the Capitol, 1st Patent Office Superintendent

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Description:
(1759-1828) American physician, inventor, painter and architect. Designed United States Capitol, 1st Architect of the Capitol, 1st Superintendent of the US Patent Office. Born in a Quaker community in the British Virgin Islands, heir to sugar plantations. Sent to England at 5 to be educated, apprenticed 1777-81 to a practical physician and apothecary, medical student at Edinburgh 1781. In 1783 went to London to continue medical studies and attend lectures at the Royal Academy. Received his medical degree in 1784 at the University of Aberdeen. Active in cause of anti-slavery, emigrated to Philadelphia 1786, lodged with James Madison, 1787-88, who was aware of his abolitionist activities. US citizen 1788, in 1789 submitted design to the architectural competition for the Library Company of Philadelphia's new hall. His design won but was somewhat departed from during construction. Thornton learned of design competitions for the U.S. Capitol and the President's House to be erected in the new federal city on the Potomac. He was allowed to compete upon his return to Philadelphia. Between July and Nov. 1792 the Washington administration examined closely designs submitted by Etienne Sulpice Hallet and Judge George Turner. Hallet and Turner had been summoned in August 1792 to present their ideas to the District of Columbia Commissioners and local landholders. In early November Turner's new designs were rejected. Painter John Trumbull handed in Thornton's still "unfinished" revised plan of the Capitol building Jan. 29, 1793, the president's formal approbation not recorded until April 2, 1793. After more drawings were prepared, Jefferson praised Thornton's design as "simple, noble, beautiful, excellently distributed." For his winning design, Thornton received $500 and a city lot. Execution of the design was entrusted to James Hoban and Hallet, who made numerous revisions, including removing the rotunda under which Washington was to be enshrined upon his death. On Sept. 12, 1794, the President appointed Thornton one of 3 Commissioners of the Federal District in charge of laying out the new federal city and overseeing construction of the first government buildings, including the Capitol of which he became supervisor and remained in charge until 1802. Despite changes and additions by Latrobe and Bullfinch, much of the design of the facade of the central portion of the Capitol is his. Thornton also designed the Tayloe House, also known as The Octagon House, in Washington, erected between 1799 and 1800. It served as a temporary "Executive Mansion" after the 1814 burning of the White House by the British and was where President Madison signed the Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812. Around 1800, he designed Woodlawn for Major Lawrence Lewis (nephew of Geo. Washington) and his wife, Eleanor (Nelly) Parke Custis (granddaughter of Martha Washington), on 2,000 acres of Mount Vernon land. Around 1808, he designed Tudor Place for Thomas Peter and his wife, Martha Parke Custis (another granddaughter of Martha Washington). In 1802, President Jefferson appointed Thornton first Superintendent of the Patent Office. When Washington was burned by the British in 1814, Thornton convinced them not to burn the Patent Office because of its importance to mankind. He held the position 1802-28, and introduced innovations including the patent reissue practice which survives today. 12 x 7 MsDS, Washington, August 2 1824, 2pp (one sheet) signed twice, first as witness to the signature of James Clephane on a land indenture, James selling of lot number 3 in the District of Columbia to Lewis Clephane, and as Justice of the Peace acknowledging the indenture. Signed twice also by fellow Justice of the Peace C. H. W. Wharton and by James Clephane.

Condition: Very good
Type:Document






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