Crowder, Enoch H.

US Army Judge Advocate General 1911-23, as Provost Marshal, implemented & administered WW I military conscription

Price: $75.00

Description:
(1859-1932) USMA 1881, US Army Major General and lawyer, Judge Advocate General of the Army 1911-23. Crowder implemented and administered the US Selective Service Act of 1917 that drafted thousands of American men into military service during World War I. Crowder, stationed near Brownsville, Texas, studied law, and in 1884 gained admission to the Texas bar and obtained a transfer to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. In 1885, Crowder was named Prof. of Military Science at the University of Missouri and obtained an 1886 law degree. He served in the Geronimo campaign and in the final campaign against Sitting Bull. In 1891, as a captain, he became acting Judge Advocate General of the Dept. of the Platte in Omaha, Nebraska. In Jan. 1895, this transfer became final and Crowder was promoted to Major and to Lieut. Colonel at the start of the Spanish-American War. In the Philippines 1898-1901, he served as a judge advocate, and as secretary to the governors, one of whom was Arthur MacArthur, Jr., father of Douglas MacArthur. He also served on the commission that arranged the Spanish surrender of the Philippines. In 1899, he headed the Board of Claims, served on the Philippine Supreme Court, and drafted the new Philippine criminal code. In 1901, he was called to Washington to be Deputy Judge Advocate General and became a member of the General Staff, and attained rank of Colonel. In the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War, he was senior US observer with the Japanese Army. While on the staff of the provisional governors in Cuba 1906-09, he oversaw the 1908 Cuban elections and later helped draft a body of laws for Cuba. On Feb. 11, 1911, he returned to Washington to be promoted to Brigadier General and Judge Advocate General of the Army, a post he held for 12 years. As Judge Advocate General, he initiated a number of innovations including regular publication of JAG opinions; issuance of a new digest (pub. 1912) of all JAG opinions issued since 1862; and a program for legal education of line officers at government expense. He also supervised revision of the Articles of War for the 1st time since 1874, revised the Manual for Courts-Martial and took an active part in prison reform in the Army. On April 2, 1917, the US entered WW I. As Army Provost Marshal, Crowder led the drafting of the Selective Service Act which passed Congress in May 1917. He was responsible for directing the Selective Service and supervised the draft - registration, classification, and induction – of all American men 18–30 years of age into the armed services – over 2,800,000 men during the War. In Oct. 1917, he was promoted to Major General. As Judge Advocate General, he supervised administration of army military justice when the number of general courts-martial rose from 6,200 in 1917 to over 20,000 in 1918. In 1918, Crowder ws charged with executing Secretary of War Baker’s "work or fight" order that mandated that virtually every activity in the country support the war effort. After the war, Crowder accelerated work on needed reform of the entire military justice system. The specific recommendations he submitted to Congress included greater safeguards for the accused, changes in the composition and powers of special courts-martial, and the addition of an authority in the President to reverse or alter any court-martial sentence found to have been adjudged erroneously. He retired from the Army Feb. 14, 1923, after 46 years of service, and the same day was appointed 1st US Ambassador to Cuba, a post he held until 1927. ISP, 9 ¼ x 7 ¼ Harris & Ewing Studio of Washington bust photograph of Major General Crowder as Provost Marshal (undated but ca. 1917-23)inscribed with sentiment to Rev. Cornelius Greenway. Tipped at top to 11 x 9 H&E mount. Rev. Cornelius Greenway (1896-1968) immigrated to the US from Holland 1914. During WW I, served with US Army in France, received Purple Heart & Service Medal. Tufts Univ. BA 1925 & STB 1928. Started collecting autographs, inc. photographs, in late 20’s. Ordained Universalist minister 1926, served parishes in Taunton & Boston, Mass. Pastor of All Souls Church in Brooklyn, New York 1929-65, affiliated with National Assn. of Congregational Christian Churches 1961.

Condition: Very good
Type:Photograph






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