Poland, John S.

Signature as 6th Infantry Regt. Captain and brevet Lieut. Colonel, commanded Standing Rock Army post in Dakota Territory 1874-76, before battles of the Rosebud and Little Big Horn

Price: $50.00

Description:
(1836-1898) USMA 1860, appointed 1st lieutenant of the 2nd Infantry 6 July 1861. He served with the Army of the Potomac at Bull Run and in following campaigns until after Gettysburg, when he was on duty in the defense of Washington. He was promoted to captain, and received brevets of major and lieutenant colonel for gallantry in action at Antietam, Shepherdstown Ford, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. He was Asst. Professor of geography, history, ethics, and drawing at West Point 1865-69. From 1870-80, he served principally on frontier duty, inc. SE Kansas at the Osage reservation, and commanding the army post at Standing Rock in Dakota Territory 1874-76. He was promoted to major of the 18th Infantry 1880, and was chief of the Dept. of Law at the Army’s infantry and cavalry school in Leavenworth, Kansas 1881-86, where he was also in charge in of the Dept. of Military Drawing 1881-83. He was promoted lieutenant colonel of the 21st Infantry 1886. He wrote "Digest of the Military Laws of the United States from 1861 to 1868" (Boston, 1868) and "The Conventions of Geneva of 1864 and 1868, and St. Petersburg International Commission " (Leavenworth, 1886). He was Brigadier General of Volunteers 4 May 1898 during Spanish-American War service. Fort Yates in North Dakota is the tribal headquarters of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. The 1st US Army post at this site was established in 1863 as the Standing Rock Cantonment to oversee the Hunkpapa and Blackfeet bands, and the Inhunktonwan and Cutheads of the Upper Yanktonais, of the Lakota Oyate. In Dec. 1874, the Army established a small military post adjacent to the Standing Rock Indian Agency, manned by 3 companies of infantry, numbering 4 officers and slightly more than 100 enlisted men. Captain Poland was post commander to 1876. Relations between Poland and Indian Agent John Burke were acrimonious as they argued over Agency operations. On Dec. 22, 1875 Burke received instructions from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs ordering him to find Sitting Bull and have him and his followers come in to the Agency by Jan. 31 1876 or they would be deemed hostile and treated with military force. Poland meanwhile telegraphed General Alfred Terry as to his concern about the Standing Rock Indian Trader, J. R. Casselberry, stating that the Indians were swapping cattle hides at the store for supplies, and Poland was convinced they were stockpiling ammunition in anticipation of war. Casselberry stated that he was operating under Burke’s authority and that ammunition was an approved trading item needed for hunting. Poland ordered the store closed Jan. 1, 1876 and placed under guard pending further instructions from Gen. Terry. On Jan. 13, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs instructed Burke to cease ammunition sales to the Indians. The Army believed the Agencies had become recruiting depots for Sitting Bull’s “hostiles.” Many Indians left Standing Rock and the battles of the Rosebud and Little Big Horn ensued shortly thereafter. The fort’s name was changed by the Army in 1878 to honor Captain George Yates, killed at the 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn. The 6th Infantry Regiment was transferred to the Department of the Dakota in 1872 and based out of Fort Buford, Dakota Territory, fighting many engagements against hostile Indian forces. In 1872 and 1873, the regiment earned campaign streamers NORTH DAKOTA 1872 and NORTH DAKOTA 1873. The next several years saw much action for the regiment during the Indian Wars many of which were in Montana Territory, and they were awarded campaign streamers MONTANA 1879, LITTLE BIG HORN, CHEYENNES, and UTES. 4 ¾ x 7 ½ autograph album leaf signed by Poland as Captain 6th Infantry and Bvt. Lt. Col. U.S. Army. Undated but ca. 1879.

Condition: Very good
Type:Signed Album Page






[View Shopping Cart]
[Home] [Articles] [Biography] [Calendar]
[Catalogue] [Search]



enbainc@cs.com

Edward N. Bomsey Autographs, Inc.
7317 Farr Street
Annandale, VA 22003-2516
(703) 642-2040(phone & fax)




Home
Home

Articles
Articles

Biography
Biography

Calendar
Calendar

Catalogue
Catalogue

Search
Search