Foch, Ferdinand; Mangin, Charles E.; Weygand, Maxime

Signed photograph of Generals Foch, Mangin and Weygand reviewing French Seneglaese soldiers

Price: $495.00

Description:
FERDINAND FOCH (1851-1929) Marshal of France, military theorist, Commander-in-Chief of Allied armies during WW I. He enlisted in the army in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, reaching the rank of Captain before entering the Staff College in 1885. In 1895 he returned to the College as an instructor and it is for his work there that he was later acclaimed as "the most original military thinker of his generation.” Foch was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1898. His career accelerated and he returned to regimental command in 1901, promoted to Colonel in 1903. After a short time as Deputy Chief of the General Staff, he was appointed Commandant of the École Militaire and Brigadier General in 1907, returning to the Staff College as Commandant 1907-11. In 1911 he was promoted to Major General and in 1913 took command of the French XX Corps at Nancy. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, XX Corps participated in the brief invasion of Germany before retiring before a German counterattack and successfully blocking the Germans short of Nancy. Ordered to defend Paris, Foch's prestige soared after the victory at the Marne while commanding the French Ninth Army. He was promoted to command Army Group North, cooperating with British forces at Ypres and the Somme. At the end of 1916, partly owing to the failure or stalemate of these offensives and partly owing to wartime political rivalries, Foch was removed from command. Recalled as Chief of the General Staff in 1917, he was named Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies in the spring of 1918. He played a decisive role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris in the Second Battle of the Marne, after which he was promoted to Marshal of France. On 11 November 1918 Foch accepted the German request for an armistice. He advocated peace terms that would make Germany unable to pose a threat to France ever again. After the Treaty of Versailles, as Germany was allowed to remain a united country, Foch declared "This is not a peace. It is an armistice for twenty years". His words proved prophetic: WW II started 20 years and 65 days later. CHARLES E. M. MANGIN (1866-1925) French general in WW I, joined army in 1885, served in Africa to 1892. He commanded a battalion in Tonkin 1901-04, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1905 and served during the French occupation of Senegal 1906-08. During WW I, he rose from divisional command to that of the 10th Army for the Second Battle of the Marne, commanding French and American troops. He had notable victories at Charleroi and Verdun, but his reputation suffered following the disastrous Nivelle Offensive (16 April–9 May 1917). His Sixth Army bore the brunt of the main attack during the Second Battle of the Aisne, the main component of Robert Nivelle's costly assault. After the failed operation was abandoned, Mangin and Nivelle were removed from effective command. However, after Foch's promotion to Allied Supreme Commander, Mangin was recalled on the orders of Prime Minister Clemenceau and given command initially of a corps and then of the French Tenth Army on the Western Front. Although he was despised by some of his troops (who nicknamed him "The Butcher"), his Tenth Army was responsible for the crucial Allied counterattack at the Second Battle of the Marne. In the closing months of the war, he served as part of General Castelnau's Army Group East, advancing towards Metz. The incorporation of African troops in the French Army on a large scale, before and during the war, was the result chiefly of his persistent advocacy. After the Allied victory, the Tenth Army occupied the Rhineland. There he became the focus of controversy due to his attempts to foster establishment of a pro-French Rhenish Republic with the aim of separating it from Germany and denying Germany the west bank of the Rhine. Mangin became a member of the Supreme War Council and Inspector General of French colonial troops. His remains were interred in Les Invalides in 1932, a statue erected in his honor in 1928. A bronze statue of Mangin in Paris was destroyed on the 16th of June, 1940 (German troops had entered Paris 2 days earlier). Mangin guarded the Rhineland in 1920 with Senegalese troops; he reputedly ordered German mayors to provide brothels for them. During his tour of Paris, Hitler visited Napoleon's tomb and the statue, and being a reminder of Mangin's machinations in the Rhineland, it was one of 2 he ordered dynamited (the other of Edith Cavell) , the bronze melted down and used for German bullets. In 1957 a new statue of him was erected. MAXIME WEYGAND (1867-1965) Belgian-born French commander in WW I & II. He graduated from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr in 1887. During the Dreyfus Affair, he was one of the most anti-dreyfusard officers in his regiment. During WW I he became a Lieutenant Colonel on the staff of General Foch, promoted to Brigadier General 1916 and Major General in 1918. He remained on Foch's staff when his patron was appointed Supreme Allied Commander in the spring of 1918, and was Foch's right-hand man throughout his victory at the Second Marne and until the end of the war. In 1918 Weygand served on the Armistice negotiations, and it was Weygand who read out the Armistice conditions to the Germans in the railway carriage at Compiègne. In 1923 he was made commander-in-chief Levant, the French mandate in Lebanon & Syria. He was appointed High Commissioner of Syria in 1924 and returned to France in 1925. In 1931 he was appointed Army Chief of Staff, Vice President of the Supreme War Council and Inspector of the Army, and elected a member of the Académie Française. He retired in 1935 at 68, recalled in August 1939 by Prime Minister Daladier and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Orient Theatre of Operation. By late May 1940 Weygand replaced Supreme Commander Maurice Gamelin. He arrived on May 17, with most Allied forces trapped in Belgium. He joined in seeking an armistice with Germany. He was appointed by Pétain to the Bordeaux-Vichy Cabinet as Minister for National Defence June-September 1940, then Delegate-General to the North African colonies. He convinced young officers of the justice of the armistice and deported opponents to concentration camps in Southern Algeria and Morocco, locking up Gaullists, Jews, Freemasons, Communists, Légion Etrangère foreign volunteers, unemployed foreign refugees legally admitted into France, and others. He applied Vichy's racist laws against Jews very harshly, driving most Jewish pupils from colleges and primary schools. He acquired a reputation as an opponent of collaboration when he protested against the 28 May 1941 Protocols of Paris signed by Admiral Darlan, which granted bases to the Axis in Aleppo, Syria, Bizerte, Tunisia and Dakar, Senegal and envisaged extensive military collaboration with Axis forces in the event of Allied countermeasures. He remained an outspoken critic of Germany but delivered to Rommel's Afrika Korps 1200 French trucks and heavy artillery pieces with 1000 shells per gun. When he opposed German bases in Africa, Hitler pressured the Vichy government to dismiss and recall him in November 1941; in November 1942, after the Allied invasion of North Africa, he was arrested and confined in Germany and in North Tyrol until May 1945, when he fell into American hands. On returning to France, he was held as a collaborator, released in May 1946, and cleared in 1948. SP, uncommon 3 ¼ x 5 ¼ b&w flat finish photograph of Generals Foch, Mangin and Weygand reviewing a unit of French Senegalese soldiers, photographer’s arm and camera in foreground, signed by them at bottom. Possibly unpublished "snapshot", undated but likely during or right after WW I.

Condition: Very good, very slight wear, mount remnants on verso
Type:Photograph






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