Haeckel, Ernst

AQS by the biologist-zoologist, 1st German advocate of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Price: $150.00

Description:
(1834-1919) German biologist & philosopher, Professor of Zoology at Jena 1865-1909. 1st German advocate of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, 1st to draw up genealogical tree relating various orders of animals. German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including "anthroprogeny", "ecology", "phylum", "phylogeny", and "stem cell". Haeckel promoted and popularized Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held "recapitulation theory" ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"), claiming that an individual organism's biological development, ontogeny, parallels and summarizes its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-color illustrations of animals and sea creatures ("Kunstformen der Natur", "Art Forms of Nature"). As a philosopher, Haeckel wrote "Die Welträtsel(1895–99, "The Riddle of the Universe", 1901), genesis for the term "world riddle" and "Freedom in Science and Teaching" to support teaching evolution. He completed studies at the cathedral high school of Merseburge then studied medicine in Berlin and Wurzburg and in 1857, attained a doctorate in medicine. Haeckel studied at the University of Jena for 3 years, earning a doctorate in zoology before becoming a professor of comparative anatomy at Jena where he remained for 47 years, from 1862 o 1909. Between 1859 and 1866, Haeckel worked on many invertebrate groups, and on a trip to the Mediterranean named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians. From 1866 to 1867, Haeckel made an extended journey to the Canary Islands and during this period, met with Charles Darwin in 1866 at Down House in Kent, Thomas Huxley and Charles Lyell. Rather than being a strict Darwinian, Haeckel believed that the characteristics of an organism were acquired through interactions with the environment and that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". He sometimes took great, non-scientific leaps from available evidence. At the time Darwin published "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" (1859), Haeckel postulated that evidence of human evolution would be found in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been found. He described these theoretical remains in great detail and even named the as-yet unfound species, "Pithecanthropus alalus", and instructed his students to go and find it. One student did find some remains: a Dutchman named Eugene Dubois searched the East Indies from 1887 to 1895, discovering the remains of "Java Man" in 1891, among the oldest hominid remains ever found. Dubois classified Java Man with Haeckel's "Pithecanthropus" label, later reclassified as "Homo erectus." Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the modern diversity of human groups and became a key figure in social darwinism and leading proponent of scientific racism. Haeckel divided human beings into 10 races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. Haeckel claimed the origin of humanity was to be found in Hindustan, South Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. He was awarded the title of Excellency by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1907 and the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal in 1908. In the United States, Mount Haeckel in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, is named in his honor, as is another Mount Haeckel in New Zealand and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. AQS from Goethe in German on a 3 ½ x 5 ½ card, roughly translated as: “Who gets to be lucky? One who works happily and is content in doing so”. Signed and dated January 17 1905, Jena, below. Spanish translation of the German text on verso in another hand.

Condition: Fair, left halfof the card is stained but writing is most legible
Type:Autograph Quotation Signed






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