Brooks, John

1820 DS as Massachusetts Governor transmitting a legislative resolution opposing a constitutional amendment proposed by Pennsylvania against national bank expansion

Price: $90.00

Description:
(1752-1825) Massachusetts doctor, military officer, and politician, 11th Governor 1816-23, one of the last Federalists elected to office in the US. An officer of the Reading, Mass. militia, he led his troops at Lexington and Concord. He joined the Continental Army in May 1775 as a major in Bridge's Regiment and was sent to fortify Breed's Hill the night of June 1617. He missed the next day's Battle of Bunker Hill being sent by Col. Wm. Prescott for reinforcements. He served in the Siege of Boston, transferring to the 19th Continental Regt. on Jan. 1, 1776. After the British withdrew from Boston, he saw action in the October 1776 Battle of White Plains. He served under George Washington in the New York and New Jersey campaign of 1776, missing the Battle of Trenton due to illness. On Nov. 1, 1776 he transferred to the 8th Mass. Regt., promoted to lieutenant colonel. In 1777 he was part of the relief force for Fort Stanwix and led a successful assault against British positions in the key 2nd Battle of Saratoga where he gained a reputation for fearlessness in the assault and capture of Hessian fortifications on the British right. In the winter of 177778 Brooks was at Valley Forge, serving as a leading drill master under von Steuben. He was temporarily adjutant to General Charles Lee when the army followed the British across New Jersey in 1778, engaging them at Monmouth. He transferred to the 7th Mass. Regt. in Nov. 1778, its commandant until June 12, 1783 when he resigned. He played a key role in the 1783 Newburgh Conspiracy in which he helped quash ideas of mutiny in the Continental Army. In 1783 Brooks became an Original Member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati and its 1st Secretary 1783-86; in 1810 he became president of the state Society and in 1811 he became VP of the National Society, holding both offices until his death. After the war he returned to medical practice. He was active in the state militia, rising to major general commanding the Middlesex Division, and led the division under Major General Benjamin Lincoln, helping put down Shay's Rebellion in 1787. In 1787 he was elected to a one year term as captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company (elected to a 2nd one year term in 1794) and was elected to the state convention that ratified the US Constitution. He served in the militia during the War of 1812 as adjutant general with the rank of major general, after which he was elected governor. Brooks, popular and politically moderate, came to personify the "Era of Good Feelings" that followed the war. During his governorship, Maine was granted statehood. Brooks, a leading member of the state Medical Society for many years, served as its president after his retirement from politics. Brooks and Brooksville, Maine were named for him. Printed 9 3/4 x 7 3/4 DS as Governor, Boston, February 2 1820, 4pp (folded sheet) to Mass. US Rep. Jeremiah Nelson, transmitting a resolution of the State Legislature adopted Jan. 31, 1820. The printed Resolution (on p. 3) calls on the state's Senators and Representatives in Congress to oppose a constitutional amendment proposed by the Pennsylvania Legislature that would forbid Congress from making any law to "erect or incorporate any Bank, or other monied institution, except within the District of Columbia; and every bank, or other monied institution, which shall be established by authority of Congress, shall, together with its Branches and Offices of Deposit and Discount, be confined to the District of Columbia." Jeremiah Nelson (1769-1838) Mass. US Rep. (Federalist) 1805-07, 1815-25, 1831-33 (Anti-Jacksonian). The 2nd Bank of the United States was launched in the midst of a major global market readjustment as Europe recovered from the Napoleonic Wars. The central bank was charged with restraining uninhibited private bank note issue, already in progress, that threatened to create a credit bubble and the risks of a financial collapse. Government land sales in the West, fueled by European demand for agricultural products, ensured that a speculative bubble would form. Simultaneously, the National Bank was promoting a democratized expansion of credit to accommodate eastern business entrepreneurs and credit hungry western and southern farmers. Under the management of 1st Second Bank of the United States president William Jones, the Bank failed to control paper money issued from branch banks in the West and South, contributing to the post-War of 1812 speculative land boom. When the US markets collapsed in the Panic of 1819, a result of global economic adjustments, the central bank came under withering criticism for its belated tight money policies that exacerbated mass unemployment and plunging property values. Further, it transpired that branch directors for the Baltimore office engaged in fraud and larceny. Resigning in Jan. 1819, Jones was replaced by Langdon Cheves who continued the contraction in credit in an effort to stop inflation and stabilize the Bank, even as the economy began to correct. The central bank's reaction to the crisis, a clumsy expansion, then a sharp contraction of credit, indicated its weakness, not its strength. The effects were catastrophic, resulting in a protracted recession with mass unemployment and a sharp drop in property values that persisted until 1822. The financial crisis raised doubts among the American public as to the efficacy of paper money, and in whose interests a national system of finance operated.

Condition: Good, fold thru"J" and paraph of signature, seal tear at center left on 3rd page, small piece missing from printed Resolution on 3rd page not affecting content; few small fold separations and tears carefully repaired
Type:Document






[View Shopping Cart]
[Home] [Articles] [Biography] [Calendar]
[Catalogue] [Search]



enbainc@cs.com

Edward N. Bomsey Autographs, Inc.
7317 Farr Street
Annandale, VA 22003-2516
(703) 642-2040(phone & fax)




Home
Home

Articles
Articles

Biography
Biography

Calendar
Calendar

Catalogue
Catalogue

Search
Search