Heyworth, Lawrence

1842 ALS to fellow reformer William Lovett favoring direct payment of salaries to MPs by their constituencies

Price: $75.00

Description:
(1786-1872) Liverpool merchant, reformer, MP. He left school at 16 to work with his brothers in the family woolen manufacturing business which produced goods mainly for export to Spain and Portugal. He moved to Portugal in 1805 to deal directly with their Portuguese customers and in 1807, he and his brothers, now Heyworth Brothers & Co., established a business as commission agents in Rio de Janeiro. This business was so successful that the brothers set up a shipping and commission agency in Liverpool to handle the trade. The British government attempted to impose tariffs on trade there and in 1816, Heyworth returned to Europe to oversee the opening of alternate trading outlets in Hamburg, Trieste and Livorno. He later persuaded his brothers to dispose of their interests in the family businesses in favor of railway investments. He obtained patents relating to steam power in 1838 and was president of Bacup Mechanics' Institution from 1839 to his death. A Nonconformer in religious belief, Heyworth became chairman of the British Anti-State Church Association. Having opposed imposition of export duties as early as 1815, he became a supporter of the Anti-Corn Law League and by the late 1830s, was a prominent figure in the free trade movement in NW England. He became involved in the campaign for repeal of the Corporation and other Test Acts, and was an early supporter of the Complete Suffrage Union (CSU), along with fellow Radicals Edward Miall and John Bright. Although sharing similar aims to Chartism, Heyworth was influenced by Joseph Sturge and objected to the methods of Chartist leaders. Sturge's influence played a part in his support for the abolitionism and his membership in a peace movement, the League of Universal Brotherhood, in 1848. He co-founded the Financial Reform Association in 1848 and was a prominent temperance campaigner, supporting the British Temperance Emigration Society which purchased 1,600 acres of settlement land in Dane and Iowa counties in Wisconsin. In 1848 he was elected as one of 2 MPs for the Derby constituency, which owed much to his reformist proclivities and his being a director of the Midland Railway, based in the town. He was not reelected in 1852 but in 1853, Heyworth was awarded the seat. He did not stand for election in 1857 or thereafter. Heyworth, Illinois was named for him by the Illinois Central Railroad, of which he was a shareholder. His writings include: "Glimpses at the Origin, Mission and Destiny of Man" (1866); "Observations on the substitution of direct for indirect taxation, and the vindication of an income tax: shewing the immense social advantages which the change would confer on the entire human race" (1862); "The Expansion of the Suffrage" (1861); "Fiscal Policy: Direct and Indirect Taxation Contrasted" (1860); and, "On the Corn Laws and Other Legislative Restrictions" (1843). Very good content ALS, 3pp (7 x 4 1/2 folded sheet), Yewtree near Liverpool, April 21 1842, to brother reformer William Lovett, London. Heyworth encloses a copy of a letter he wrote to "our mutual friend, Mr. [Joseph] Sturge" (not present) in part regarding payment of Members of Parliament, "an indispensible item or element in the formation of any righteously organized government". Heyworth favors direct taxation as being just and deceiving no one, and that "every man's services in the State should be paid for direct by the parties benefitted", not thru intermediate channels. Heyworth "can see nothing to hinder every constituency from being the direct paymaster of its own representative" which would impartially preserve strict honesty and remove a "great temptation to corrupt statesmen". With typescript. WILLIAM LOVETT (1800-1877) British activist best known for his role in the Chartist movement, an 1838-50 campaign for parliamentary reforms to correct inequities remaining after the 1832 Reform Act. A self-educated member of the Cabinetmakers Society, he rose to national political prominence as founder of the Anti-Militia Association ("no vote, no musket") and was active in wider trade unionism through the Metropolitan Trades Union and Owenite socialism. In 1831, during Reform Act agitation, he helped form the National Union of the working Classes. After passage of the Reform Act he campaigned to repeal taxes on newspapers. In June 1836 he co-founded the London Working Men's Association. In 1838 Lovett and fellow Radical Francis Place drafted a parliamentary bill, the foundation of the People's Charter. In Feb. 1839 the 1st Chartist Convention met in London, and unanimously elected Lovett its Secretary. A proponent of the idea that political rights could be garnered through political pressure and non-violent agitation, Lovett retired from overt political activity after a year in prison on the charge of seditious libel 183940. While in prison he co-wrote "Chartism, a New Organisation of the People", which focused on Chartist Education. In 1841 he formed the National Association for Promoting the Political and Social Improvement of the People, to implement his New Move educational initiative through which he hoped poor workers and their children would be able to better themselves. The New Move did not generate popular support; membership never surpassed 5000, and education was limited to Sunday schools. He later devoted himself to the National Association for Promoting the Political and Social Improvement of the People, seeking to improve lives of poor workers and their children by means of a Chartist educational program. He believed in temperance and in teaching methods founded on kindness and compassion. He wrote his autobiography in 1877 and died impoverished that year. JOSEPH STURGE (1793-1859) English Quaker, abolitionist, and activist, founded the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (now Anti-Slavery International). He worked throughout his life supporting pacifism, working-class rights, and universal emancipation of slaves. In the late 1830s, he wrote 2 books about the Jamaican apprenticeship system which helped persuade Parliament to adopt an earlier full emancipation date. In Birmingham, Sturge became interested in Jamaica, visited it several times and witnessed the horrors of slavery as well as abuses under an apprenticeship system designed to control labor of all former slaves above age 6 for 12 years. He worked for emancipation and abolition with Afro-Caribbean and English Baptists and Nonconformists. In 1837, Sturge founded the Central Negro Emancipation Committee, and in 1839, a year after abolition in the British dominions, he founded the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society to achieve emancipation and end slavery worldwide. The Society organized the 1st international conference, The World's Anti-Slavery Convention, which occurred in June 1840 in London, attracting delegates from Europe, North America, and Caribbean countries, as well as Australia and Ireland. It included women activists from the US, and many Nonconformers. The conference was notable within the women's suffrage movement due to delegates' excluding women's participation before its opening. In 1841 Sturge travelled in the US with John Greenleaf Whittier to examine the slavery question there. On his return to England, Sturge supported the Chartist Movement. In 1842 he ran for Parliament for Nottingham but was defeated; he ran again in Birmingham in 1844 as a Chartist candidate and lost. He helped found the Peace Society and was instrumental in founding the Morning Star in 1855, a newspaper in which to promote his socially progressive ideas.

Condition: Very good, some minor mount remnants at the right side of the blank 4th page, tiny spindle file hole at center of all pages
Type:Letter






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