Chase, Samuel

1768 printed DS completed by him and signed while Baltimore lawyer, seeks summons from sheriff to bring a client’s debtor to court

Price: $3250.00

Description:
(1741-1811) Maryland Signer of the Declaration of Independence, Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court 1796-1811. In the last decades of his career, he was a staunch Federalist. He was 18 when he went to Annapolis to study law. Admitted to the bar in 1761, he began a law practice in Annapolis. Elected to the Maryland General Assembly in 1764, he served for 20 years. He co-founded the Anne Arundel County Sons of Liberty chapter with close friend William Paca, and led opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act. A member of the 1774-76 Annapolis Convention, he also represented Maryland at the Continental Congress. Re-elected in 1776, he signed the Declaration of Independence and remained in the Congress to 1778. His attempt to corner the flour market, using insider information gained through his position in the Congress, resulted in his not being returned to the Congress and damaging his reputation. In 1786, he moved to Baltimore, and in 1788 was appointed Chief Justice of the District Criminal Court in Baltimore, serving to 1796. In 1791, he became Chief Justice of the Maryland General Court, serving to 1796. On Jan. 26, 1796, President Washington appointed him an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, serving to his death on June 19, 1811. President Jefferson, alarmed at the seizure of power by the judiciary through the claim of exclusive judicial review, led efforts to remove Federalists from the bench. His allies in Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, abolishing lower courts created by the legislation and terminating Federalist judges despite lifetime appointments. Two years after the repeal in May 1803, Chase denounced it, saying it would "take away all security for property and personal liberty, and our Republican constitution will sink into a mobocracy." In April 1800, acting as a district judge, he strongly attacked Thomas Cooper, indicted under the Alien and Sedition Acts, taking the air of a prosecutor rather than a judge. Jefferson saw an opportunity to reduce Federalist influence on the judiciary by impeaching Chase on March 12, 1804. Virginia US Rep John Randolph of Roanoke took charge of the impeachment. The House served Chase with 8 articles of impeachment in late 1804. The Jeffersonian-Republican-controlled Senate began the impeachment trial in early 1805, Vice President Burr presiding, Randolph leading the prosecution. All counts involved Chase's work as a trial judge in lower circuit courts (justices had the added duty then of serving on circuit courts, a practice ended in the late 19th century.) The heart of the allegations was that political bias led Chase to treat defendants and their counsel blatantly unfairly. His lawyers called the prosecution a political effort by his Republican enemies, and Chase argued that his actions were motivated by adherence to precedent, judicial duty to restrain advocates from improper statements of law, and considerations of judicial efficiency. The Senate acquitted him of all charges on March 1, 1805; he is the only Supreme Court justice to have been impeached. Partly-printed 6 ¼ x 7 DS, Baltimore County, October 4 1768, inlaid to 8 x 9, completed and signed by Chase while a Maryland lawyer and member of the Maryland General Assembly. In the name of Frederick, “absolute Lord and Proprietary of the Provinces of Maryland and Avelon, Lord Baltimore, and so forth”, he commands the sheriff of Baltimore County to bring “Bennett Lucas late of Baltimore Farmer otherwise called Benett Leukess” before the Court to answer his client, John Burgess Jr., in an action over a debt of 20 pounds sterling. Signed by Chase at the bottom. Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (1731 -1771), styled as The Hon. Frederick Calvert to 1751, English nobleman last in the line of Barons Baltimore. Although he exercised almost feudal power in the Province of Maryland, he never set foot in the colony and, unlike his father, took little interest in politics, treating his estates, including Maryland, largely as sources of revenue to support his extravagant and often scandalous lifestyle.

Condition: Very good, 2 stains at top center, some blotting
Type:Document






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